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- On December 9, 2018
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A Concept Note on Low Head Turbine for Rural Electrification
Despite the huge potentiality of Nepal to produce abundant electricity for the domestic and international consumption, around 17% people donot have access to electricity (World Bank, 2015). People representing backward and marginalized communities and people living in rural areas are deviod of having electricity in this modern era where energy is the lifeline of every individual irrespective of status he or she carries. Electricity has multiple benefits in huaman life and has multidimensional effect on education, health, production and fulfilling several other human needs.
Nepalese are facing huge electricity crisis for long period of time. The demand for electricity is increasing more than 20% every year and the supply of electricity is not growing proportionately with the demand until the year 2016. Apart from this, the massive earthquake of 2015 worsened the situation of people who don’t have access to electricity. Millions of earthquake survivors are living under the open sky in freezing winter. No one knows how many children and aged people lost their lives in two winters due to cold. The third winter is to hit in a month time. They do not have a warm wall which can still save hundreds of children and old age people. Of course they do not have a wall, but electricity could have provided some heat to make blood running. Furthermore, children are not able to switch light at night for their study. They have to wait for morning to complete it. These aftereffects are bound to bring huge disparity in future for Nepal. The immediate counter measures are to be implemented for advancing human condition working along the idea of governance, cultural reform and technological intervention in order to gain sustainable goals.
Looking all those issues listed above, this project aims to intervene community by providing electricity for those families who have no access to electricity ever. Technology is nothing unless it is beneficial to the human being. This particular project saves the lives of child and aged people, creates the opportunity for employment and income generation, quality of education, health and hygiene.
The goal of this project is to provide electricity through low head turbine to the most unreserved and poor communities for their economic and social empowerment syncing with the ideology “Energy for Humanism “.
To produce electricity through low head turbine for the rural communities. To socially and economically empower people living in destitution
4. PROJECT ACTIVITY
4.1. Low Head Turbine
The small or micro hydro powers are the most prospective and promising renewable energy sources that have received significant attention because of its capacity to generate green energy ranging from few watts up to hundreds of kilo watts. The prospective advantage of small or micro hydro in respect to conventional or traditional hydropower lies in its nature of being efficient for construction time, duration, and cost.
Nepal which constitutes hilly areas has good head of water which is favorable for generation of electricity through the use of turbines. But due to difficulty in developing national supply grid and erection of diversion structure the high head hydro projects are being lagged. The immediate solution to this problem is installation of new type of turbine system i.e. Low Head Turbines which includes Gravitational Water Vortex Power Plant (GWVPP) and Archimedes Screw Turbine (AST). This type of turbines is economically viable and environmentally acceptable compared to, traditional hydropower which requires huge cost, long time for construction and loss of ecological habitat.
With relatively lower installation costs and low head requirement, these plants can be installed in many places in Nepal, including Terai. It provides a novel alternative for electricity generation for places without access to national electricity grid. Small power plants like these can be beneficial for small and medium enterprises in using local and renewable energy resources, thus greatly reducing operating costs and carbon footprint. Thus, for a developing country, like Nepal, this technology of power production is a boon to eradicate energy crisis playing role in sustainable development.
4.2. Gravitational Water Vortex Power Plant:
The gravitational water vortex turbine is an ultra-low head turbine which can operate in as low head range of 0.7 m to 2 m with similar yields to conventional hydroelectric turbines used for production of renewable energy characterized with positive environmental profile.The water passes through a large, straight inlet channel and then passes tangentially into a round basin, which forms a powerful vortex; an exit hole is made at the bottom center of the basin through which the vortex finds its outlet One solution to this problem is the installation of low head turbines that are economically viable and environmentally acceptable.
4.3. Archemedian Screw Turbine
The Archimedes screw is one of the oldest hydraulic concepts. Documentation of it being used to pump water dates back to 2nd century. An Archimedes screw has an inner cylindrical shaft around which one or more helical surfaces (flights) are wrapped. The Archimedes screw can also be used to generate electricity if implemented as an Archimedes screw turbine (AST). In this case, a generator is placed at the top of the screw turbine shaft which results in electrical production when the hydrostatic pressures of water within the screw exert forces tangential to the helical surface, causing the screw to turn and water to flow from the top to the bottom of the screw. The AST has a low environmental impact. It has been demonstrated that fish and small debris can pass through an AST without any hindrance.
4.4. Social and Economic Part
This project not only ends with the production of electricity. Rural communities will be socially and economically empowered for the self-sustainability of the project. A multipurpose cooperative will be established or existing multipurpose cooperative will be empowered. Training on the multifold use of electricity will be conducted in project site. Apart from this, the members of cooperative will be assisted for the establishment of agro processing mills and cottage industry. The social and economic empowerment of community members will enhance their income level thereby making community members more productive.
5. FINANCIAL SUSTAINABILITY
[Note: Below mentioned financial sustainability plan proposed for 10KW Gravitational Vortex
Power Plant Turbine System based on the Detailed Feasibility study carried out in Tapting village, Sisakhola, solukhumbhu district, Nepal]
|S.N.||Components||Amount (Rs)||Share (%)||Remarks|
|2||Mechanical Works||8,92,000||15.82||Including transportation|
|3||Electrical Works||12,23,425||21.70||Including transportation|
|4||Spare parts & Tools||25,500||0.45||Including transportation|
|5||Installation, Testing and Commissioning||52,000||0.92|
|VAT 13% in non-local cost||1,15,960||2.05|
|Total Project Cost||56,36,987.69||100|
5.2. Annual Expenditure:
|1||MH Operator I||1||30,000||25,00|
|3||Repair & Maintenance||LS||84554.805||13,981||1.5% of Total Project Cost|
5.3. Probable Business:
|and photo Studio||3||15||6||300||5400||81,000|
5.4. Annual Income from Lightning:
|S. N.||No. of houses||Location||Power per
|Operating days/ month||Operating hour/day||Total energy consumptio
|Tariff rate||Total income
5 p.m.- 11 p.m.
- Implementation of micro-hydro will be an example for being the most suitable green energy technology for electrification of off-grid rural areas.
- Micro-hydro will help utilize the untapped potential of water resources in Nepal and add up to advantage of National grid.
- Micro-hydro will save significant time and cost involved in the electrification compared to an approach involving large scale hydro development.
- Micro-hydro will make rural communitites which are affected by earthqauke, to become self-sufficient and inspire with the idea of sustainability. It will make people aware of technology that will add up to their understanding of modern world.
- The influx of economic capability will uplift their social status and play vital role fighnting against superstition, inequality, orthodox understanding, etc.